Discuss two biological explanations of

Certain stressors, such as the loss of a close relative, may trigger the disorder because high levels of physiological arousal associated with the neurotransmitter changes are thought to be involved.

The contemporary study into schizophrenia by Carlsson et al. But using monkeys means we cannot generalise the findings to humans as they are genetically different and behave differently in response to external stimuli.

Examine biological

Although other studies have shown other rates, all twin studies have shown a significantly higher rate among MZ than DZ twins, therefore suggesting that research into this area is reliable, making the genetic explanation academically credible to explain schizophrenia.

This focus on drugs suffers from the treatment aetiology fallacy: The theory is also reductionist because it ignores the main role of nurture, however it does state that a predisposition is inherited allowing for the role of nature in the initiation of the illness.

Discuss Two Biological Explanations of Aggression

Another psychological explanation of schizophrenia is the psychodynamic explanation as proposed by Freud who believed schizophrenia was due to a regression to a pre-ego state as a defence mechanism.

Dopamine function in the mesocortical pathway may be responsible for the negative symptomssuch as avolition lack of motivation and alogia inability to speak. This would explain why schizophrenia symptoms appear after adolescence and why the brains of people with schizophrenia have a thinner cerebral cortex with fewer synapses than healthy brains.

This appears to support the role of genetics in aggressive behaviour. Conversely, a different way of investigating genetic factors is by studying children who have been brought up by adults who are not their biological parents.

To test whether life events are a cause or effect, Hirsch et al carried out a prospective study checking the life events experienced in a year. Nevertheless Raleigh et al have added support for the importance of serotonin in aggressive behaviour using vervet monkeys.

Additionally many of the studies are a correlation study and so we cannot distinguish the cause and effect.

Biological Theories of Crime

While they obtained a large sample size, they only included Danish children whereas psychologists have shown that adopted children in different countries e.

Amphetamines may worsen positive symptoms, but are effective at reducing negative symptoms, while phenothiazines PTZ are effective at alleviating positive symptoms but not negatives. Overall, Tsuang et al estimate that if stringent criteria are used, a first degree relative of schizophrenia has times higher risk of it developing than those with no relatives.

Introduction Biological theories within the field of criminology attempt to explain behaviors contrary to societal expectations through examination of individual characteristics.

Conclusion Biological explanations have led to helpful treatments but won't be a complete cure. I'll compare biological with non-biological explanations on another page. It is not the amount of dopamine, but the sensitivity and density of dopamine receptors.

Joseph would argue that the differences in concordance rates between MZ and DZ twins reflect nothing more than the environmental differences that establish the two types of twins.

The sex drive libido is characterized by craving for sexual gratification. This suggests that something non-biological is at work too, like the environment a person lives in.

However, a recent study has narrowed down this search. Most evidence comes from research using family studies which indicate that the closer the genetic relationship to someone with schizophrenia the greater the chance of developing the disorder Gottesman Tienari et al used Finnish adoptees whose biological mothers had been diagnosed with schizophrenia.

For example, it assumes that all individuals with low serotonin will be aggressive or those who have a criminal parent are also likely to become criminals thus ignoring free will.

The ideal study would be to look at the concordance rate in MZ twins who have been separated at birth and raised in very different environments. The Dopamine Hypothesis was proposed by Arvid Carlsson and suggests that schizophrenia is caused by too much dopamine - or too many dopamine receptors - in key areas of the brain.

It is not the amount of dopamine, but the sensitivity and density of dopamine receptors. The higher the concordance rate, the greater the role played by genetic factors.

Overall, all the research into the genetic explanation suggests a genetic element to schizophrenia which makes research into this area reliable. Schizophrenia symptoms seem to be linked to low levels of glutamate - perhaps because glutamate regulates dopamine, so when glutamate is blocked, dopamine levels become abnormal.

If there is a greater similarity in aggression levels between adopted children and their biological parents than between adopted children and their adoptive parents, this would suggest that genetic influences are at work.

This essay will cover both genetic and neural explanations of schizophrenia. This section also provides a conclusion that discusses the role of biological theories in the future of criminological thought. Positivist theories contrast with classical theories, which argue that people generally choose their behaviors in rational processes of logical decision making, and with critical theories, which critique lawmaking, social stratification, and the unequal distribution of power and wealth.Discuss two biological explanations of depression (8+16 marks) AO1: One biological explanation for depression is family studies.

Family studies have proved that having a first-degree relative with depression appears to be a risk factor of depression. Jun 07,  · Discuss biological explanations of schizophrenia (24 marks) The biological approach assumes that schizophrenia has an organic cause, though this doesn’t deny the role of psychological factors in the onset of the disorder.

Discuss two or more biological explanations of schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Discuss two or more psychological explanations of schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Discuss the effectiveness and appropriateness of biological therapies (8+16 marks).

Discuss two or more biological explanations of schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Discuss two or more psychological explanations of schizophrenia (8+16 marks) Discuss the effectiveness and appropriateness of biological therapies (8+16 marks).

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Discuss two biological explanations of
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